One of the most convenient services in Japan, the takyubin service is available country-wide. You can have your luggage sent anywhere in Japan for about 2000-3000 yen per bag. You can even select the date and time that you wish to receive it. There are several companies offering similar services but I generally go with Yamato (Black Cat)
There are offices are at the arrivals area of all the major airports. On your way to the next destination or back to the airport? Your hotel concierge can help send your bags ahead of time or you can visit most convenience stores and they will allow you to drop your bags off there. Just look for the black cat logo.
Living in Kyoto, I often fly through Narita for international travel and stay a few days in Tokyo on the way in and out. This service is great for packing a small day bag for the city and sending my big luggage to meet me the day I get back to Kyoto.